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ATEX and IEC Ex Flame-proof Explosion Proof Lighting & Equipment
Explosion Proof Lights
Explosion Proof Motors - Motors for Hazardous Locations
Industrial and Vaporproof Emergency Failsafe Lighting
Industrial Cord Reels and Tool Taps
Industrial Work Area Heaters
Machine Vision Lights
Megatower™
QC Series Industrial Portable Lighting - Quick Change Mount
Rig Lights
Stadium lights
String Lights and Temporary Light Stringers
Tank Cleaning Lights
Three Phase Motor Soft Starters
Vapor Proof LED Lights
Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs)
Vehicle Mounting Plates
Workboat Light Fixtures & Lighting Equipment
Yacht Engine Room Lights
Color Changing LED RGB Lighting
Explosion Proof Cord Reels
GOLIGHT Spotlights
Larson FUTURE - Lease Lighting
Remote Area Lighting and Scene Lights
Utility Bucket Mount, Receiver Hitch & Trailer Mount Lighting
Aevum Control Lighting and Equipment - IIoT
Butane and Solvent Extraction Room Lighting and Equipment
DC to DC Transformers and Power Supplies
Explosion Proof Fans & Blowers
Explosion Proof Paint Spray Booth Approved Lights
Explosion Proof String Lights
Explosion Proof Switchgear & Controls
Fleet Service Lights and Lighting Equipment
Industrial Equipment Trailers
Industrial Handlamps & Droplights
ISO 14644/FS-209E Clean Room Lighting
LED Blasting Lights
Night Time Fishing Lights
Portable AC Power Supply Units
Portable Power Distribution Panels
Power Distribution Panels with KVA Transformers
Self-Contained Lighting
Service Pit Lighting
Solar Generators & Solar Powered Lighting
Agricultural Farm Equipment Lighting & Beacons
Explosion Proof Cameras & Surveillance Systems
Explosion Proof Emergency Lights
Explosion Proof Heaters
Garage & Gas Station Canopy Lights
LED Grow Lights
LED Lights
NDT Ultraviolet Lights
Portable Hazardous Location Lighting
Radio Communication Towers and Equipment
Salt Water Processing Equipment
Shelter & Tent Lighting
Thermal Monitoring Cameras and Systems
48V LED Equipment Lights
ATEX Rated Explosion Proof Lights
Automotive Lighting
Class Rated Signals, Alarms, and Systems
Hazardous Location Area Lights and Portable Lighting
HID Equipment Lights
Hot Work Permit Lighting and Equipment
Hunting Lights
Industrial lasers
Industrial Transformers
Light Towers
Outdoor Lighting
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Phase Converters - Single to Three Phase
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24 Volt Military Lights
Disaster Relief / First Responders / Search & Rescue Lighting
Plastic Handcuff Key
110/120 Volt Flood Lights
Post Mount Spotlights
Magnetic Work Lights
Crank-up Light Masts
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Intrinsically Safe Lights
Military Flashlights
LED Waterproof Lanterns
Work Area Lights
12 Volt Flood Lights
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New Boat Lights
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Remote Control Lights
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NEW Lights and New Products
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AC/DC Transformers
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Military Spotlights 24V
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Remote Control Pan Tilt Base
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Larson Electronics Spotlights
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Replacement Lamps
Cords - Brackets
Portable Wheeled Generators
Non-Hazardous Location Extension Cords / Plugs / Outlets
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HID Work Lights
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Acro Lights HID Lights
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Acro Light Flashlight
Xenon HID Flashlights
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LED Status Lights
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Gifts For Men
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New 12 / 24 Volt Lights
Explosion Proof Accessories and Replacement Parts
Explosion Proof Lighting
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Explosion Proof Extension Cords
Black Friday & Cyber Monday Specials
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Light Tower and Light Plant Rentals
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Work Site Lighting
         

   
07/30/12 Lighting, Hazardous Locations, Productivity and Safety in the Industrial Workspace

Article- July 2012 By Larson Electronics.com

Explosion Proof Wall Pack Flood Light

Larson Electronics Explosion Proof Wall Pack Flood Light



Illumination is a vital part of any industrial operation and touches on key aspects of production including productivity, safety, efficiency and morale. With many operations running during both daytime and nighttime hours, and workers putting in ever longer and more difficult shifts, a dark and poorly illuminated workspace can pose a significant issue for companies attempting to maximize performance. With reduced lighting levels or poor or improperly installed fixtures come problems in the form of increased rejection rates, reduced production levels, increased instances of injury, and even problems with retaining personnel.


Facilities in the petrochemical, food processing, and fabrication fields face additional problems with added hazards produced by the materials and byproducts inherent to their operations. Flammable gases, vapors, dusts, liquids and chemicals all pose particular fire and explosion risks that must be addressed through increased safety measures, including the addition of lighting equipment designed for use in environments containing these materials. Such lighting equipment is commonly known as "explosion proof lighting" or "intrinsically" safe lighting.


Any electrical equipment to be used in a hazardous location must be designed to protect against the accidental ignition of flammable compounds and materials. To understand how and why work environments may be classified as hazardous and how lighting must be chosen according to the hazard presented, it is necessary to look at how environments are classified and how equipment is matched to classification.


Hazardous locations are divided into classes according to the type of materials contained within them.


They are classed as the following:


Class 1 - Flammable Gases and Vapors.
Class 2 - Combustible and electrically conductive dusts.
Class 3 - Fibers and flyings such as wood chips. Class 3 is a singular designation and is not subdivided with groups.
Classes are further subdivided into groups according to the explosive potential of the materials encountered. Groups A through C refer to gases and vapors, and groups E through G refer to combustible dusts. Materials are grouped according to their physical properties ie gases/vapors, and explosive properties ie, their potential explosive power. Thus, group D for example can be listed as “Gasoline”, yet include other petrochemicals with similar explosive potential.


Groups under Class 1 are as follows:


Group A -refers only to Acetylene which has an extremely high explosion pressure.
Group B -refers to Hydrogen, gases with more than 30% hydrogen by volume, butadiene, and other gases with similar explosive properties.
Group C -refers to ether, ethyl, and ethylene gases, and other gases of a similar potential.
Group D -refers to gasoline, acetone, ammonia, benzene, butane, methanol, propane and other more commonly encountered compounds.
Groups under Class 2 are based on electrical resistivity and grouped as follows:
Dusts


Group E refers to conductive combustible metal dusts such as aluminum and magnesium as well as alloys made from these materials.
Group F refers to carbon type dusts such as coal, charcoal, carbon black, and similar materials.
Group G refers to organic and synthetic dust compounds such as flour dust, sugar dust, starch, wood, plastics, composites, and dust from chemically derived materials.


There are no groups specific to Class 3.

Further breaking down hazardous classifications are Divisions, which denote the likelihood or probability of the hazard and are noted as follows:


Division 1 -refers to the presence of the hazardous material during normal operating conditions and indicates that a hazardous condition is expected to exist all or most of the time.
Division 2 -refers to the presence of hazardous materials under abnormal conditions, such as during container failures, leaks or system failures. In this case, a hazardous condition is not expected to exist at all times and only under unusual conditions where hazardous materials would not normally be exposed to equipment.

 

Additionally, equipment is also classed according to operating temperature, which denotes the maximum surface temperature of the equipment. Operating temperatures are important as they relate to the ignition temperature of different materials, and equipment must be chosen which will operate below the ignition temperature of compounds expected to be encountered. For a full explanation of temperature codes, see our article “IECex/ATEX and North American NEC HAZLOC Equipment Classification”.



As can be seen, there is a clear and concise list of criteria by which lighting equipment for hazardous locations must be chosen. The most important concept to understand here relates to safety and compliance, and that is that any lighting equipment to be used in a hazardous location must carry the proper approvals and certification according to classification. Any electrical equipment that does not carry the appropriate approvals is not in compliance and as a result poses a serious threat of causing inadvertent ignition of flammable materials or atmospheres.


For productivity and improved morale of personnel in the workplace, it is also important that lighting not only be powerful enough to illuminate the workspace, but of a good color and the proper intensity. For instance, lighting with poor color rendering properties is a poor choice for work spaces where close work and color reproduction is critical to production. For close work such as inspection and detail oriented tasks, lighting which accurately reproduces the color of wires, boards, schematics and the like, reduces the probability of errors as well as helps to reduce worker fatigue from excessive eye strain and concentration difficulties.


Lighting should not be excessively bright or intense as well, but instead balanced to provide good coverage without excessive dark areas or shadows. Brighter is not always better, and the more comfortable the lighting level, the easier it is for workers to concentrate on the task at hand without added distraction or stress from overly intense illumination.
Another factor which has gained popularity in recent years is lighting which more closely matches the full color spectrum much as natural daylight does. Studies strongly suggest that lighting which more closely resembles natural daylight improves worker morale and productivity, reduces fatigue and stress, and helps to maintain a more natural waking and sleep cycle. For large areas and general illumination, lighting with a good range of the natural light spectrum in its output is preferable.


There are a whole host of considerations to be accounted for when planning illumination for the industrial workspace. Everything from productivity to safety relies on effective lighting, and it is more important that lighting be chosen specifically to meet clear criteria rather than applied in an effort to simply provide as much light as possible as is commonly attempted.





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